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Overview of Cervical Cancer Stages and Their Treatment
Cervical cancer is a type of malignancy that occurs in women. Women most at risk of cervical cancer are those who start sex early, those who have multiple sex partners, a history of multiple pregnancies, develop cervical dysplasia, or have sex with men high risk. Studies suggest that during adolescence, cervical epithelial cells are particularly sensitive to carcinogenic changes.
Cervical cancer is classified and treated according to four differentiating stages of cervical cancer. The first stage is characterized by growth limited only to the cervix. When the growth extends beyond the cervix, it is already considered the second stage. It is classified as stage three once the growth has extended into the pelvic wall. Finally, if the growth has spread to adjacent organs, it has already reached the fourth stage.
Cervical cancer patients may present with symptomatic or asymptomatic disease. Symptoms indicative of the early stages of cervical cancer are prolonged menstruation, watery vaginal discharge, and light breakthrough vaginal bleeding after coitus, travel, or exertion. These results may be present for months before other irregularities occur. As the lesion expands, the symptoms are more pronounced. Hemorrhage occurs with advanced infiltrating tumors.
The first symptoms produced by the tumor after menopause are generally alarming because they are unexpected. Therefore, the patient usually quickly seeks attention. However, if symptoms begin two to three years after menopause, the patient may think that menstruation has resumed and will delay medical consultation.
In later stages, a serosanguineous or yellowish vaginal discharge may be present. It is often malodorous due to scaling of the epithelium and may be associated with heavy bleeding. Pain in the lumbosacral region is usually a late sign and occurs with lymph node involvement. Urinary and rectal symptoms may appear when advanced local disease has invaded the bladder and rectum.
The treatment of cervical cancer is determined by the clinical findings, the stage of the disease, the general condition of the patient and whether she wishes to preserve the reproductive mechanism. Treatment of preinvasive lesions may consist of cryotherapy, electrocautery, laser therapy, or conization. For the first stage of cervical cancer stages, the carcinoma can be managed conservatively with cervical conization, vaginal radiation therapy and laser treatment. Patients who are managed conservatively should be closely evaluated at least once a year to detect further occurrences of cancer.
Surgery or radiation therapy is used for stages 1 and 2. Radiation therapy may be used alone for stages 2 and 3. For stage 4, a pelvic exenteration may be performed. In advanced stage 3 and 4 tumors, external radiation therapy may be beneficial. External, internal and interstitial radiation therapy can be used. Systemic chemotherapy or regional chemotherapy are also treatments for cervical cancer.
The earlier the stage at which the cancer is diagnosed, the better the prognosis. Preinvasive cancer is usually diagnosed in women between the ages of 30 and 40. Most patients with invasive carcinoma are between 40 and 50 years old. Thus, 5 to 10 years are needed to have the chance to penetrate the basement membrane and become invasive. After invasion, death generally occurs within 3 to 5 years in the untreated patient. Therefore, to prevent any complications, pay attention to the first signs of cervical cancer.
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