How Much.Gas Is.Normal For A 1 Year Old A Supermassive Black Hole Nourishes Baby Stars Far, Far Away

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A Supermassive Black Hole Nourishes Baby Stars Far, Far Away

Supermassive black holes mysterious creatures that lurk hungrily at the heart of probably every major galaxy in the observable Universe, where they hide in sinister, voracious secrets, waiting for their dinner to be shot down into their waiting maws. These infalling buffets may consist of destroyed stars, disrupted gas clouds, or any other unfortunate celestial object destroyed by the great black hole’s gravitational ripping claws. If a doomed object has already passed the fatal point of no return event horizon, can never return from the lair of this gravity beast and is forever lost to the rest of the Universe. But despite their bad reputation for being ruthlessly destructive, a supermassive black hole that haunts the heart of a galaxy far, far away has proven to be of a nurturing nature. This object has a maternal heart and helps birth bright new baby stars more than a million light-years away. One light year is equal to 6 trillion miles away.

The discovery of this maternal heart of darkness, which triggered the birth of stars from an amazing distance – even across several galaxies – was discovered by astronomers with the help of NASA. Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes. If proven, the black hole would represent the widest circle ever observed for such an object, acting as a nurturing mother star that initiates star birth. This maternal heart of darkness actually enhanced star formation.

“This is the first time that a single black hole accelerates the birth of stars in several galaxies at the same time. It is amazing to think that a black hole in one galaxy can have a say in what is happening in galaxies millions of trillions of miles away,” commented Dr. Roberto Gilli. on November 26, 2019 Chandra Observatory press release. Dr. Gilli a National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) in Bologna, Italy, and is the lead author of the study describing the discovery.

Quoting the raven, “Never again”

Supermassive black holes are greedy entities with masses millions to billions of times that of our Sun. Our own Milky Way Galaxy is home to just such a gravitational beast residing in its secret heart. It is the name of a resident supermassive black hole Sagittarius A*and, as supermassive beasts say, relatively low mass. Sagittarius A* (uttered woe-is-a-star) it “only” weighs millions – as opposed to billions – of solar masses. The dark heart of our Milky Way is quiet now. It is an aged beast, and wakes only occasionally to feast on an unfortunate celestial body that has wandered too close to its waiting spot. Despite being mostly asleep when both Sagittarius A* and the Universe was young, eating greedily, and looking bright as the quasar. quasars the brilliantly glittering ones accretion discs they surround active supermassive black holes that haunt the centers of galaxies.

Despite their misleading name, black holes are not just empty space. They actually come in several sizes. In addition to the supermassive variety, there are stellar-mass black holes, which form when an extremely massive star runs out of the necessary core fusion fuel and violently explodes as a core-collapse (Type II) supernova. The gravitational collapse of a particularly massive star heralds its natural “death”. When a failed heavy star has no more nuclear fusion fuel to burn, it has reached the end of its stellar path. It is created by nuclear fusion inside a still “living” rotating, seething, glowing star radiation pressure which tries to push all the stellar material outwards. Meanwhile, the star’s own gravity tries to pull everything inward. This creates a delicate balance that keeps the stars bouncing. Unfortunately, when a huge, massive star runs out of fuel and contains a heavy iron-nickel core, it can no longer dissipate the pressure. Gravity wins in the end. The star’s core collapses and goes supernova. Where once there was a star, there is no more.

Astronomers have also found convincing evidence of its existence intermediate mass black holes which are smaller than their supermassive relatives, but more than their stellar mass “relatives”. Crush enough mass into a small enough spot and a black hole will form every time. Some scholars have suggested that these intermediate mass objects met and merged in the early Cosmos. Because of this, they have been hypothesized to serve as the “nuclei” that created the supermassive black holes that haunt the mysterious hearts of most, if not all, large galaxies, including our own.

A supermassive black hole in the Milky Way is not a lone gravitational beast. Sagittarius A* he has a lot of company. In fact, theoretical studies show that a large population of stellar-mass black holes—as many as 20,000—could spew light fantastically around the central black hole in our galaxy. A study published in 2018 based on data from Chandra, suggests the existence of a treasure trove of stellar-mass black holes that haunt the core of our Milky Way.

Some current theories suggest that supermassive black holes already existed in the ancient Universe. In that very early era, clouds of gas and doomed stars swirled around, then down into the waiting, greedy, gravitationally clawing claws of the hungry beast, never to return from the violently swirling maelstrom surrounding this bizarre entity. As the captured, doomed matter swirled to its inevitable demise, it whipped up a brilliant, violent storm around the black hole. accretion disk (quasar). As this bright and fiery material grew hotter, it spewed forth a raging storm of radiation—especially as it drew closer to the event horizon which is the point of no return.

In the 18th century, John Michell and Pierre-Simon Laplace raised the possibility that such affronts to Earth-developed common sense as black holes might actually exist in nature. In 1915, Albert Einstein is his General relativity, predicted the existence of objects that carry a gravitational field so strong that anything unlucky enough to wander too close to their pull is consumed. However, the idea seemed so outrageous at the time that Einstein abandoned his own idea—even though his calculations suggested otherwise.

In 1916, physicist Karl Schwarzschild formulated the first modern solution General relativity which describes a black hole. However, its interpretation as the area of ​​Space-Time, from which it is absolute nothing could escape once trapped was not fully understood until almost half a century later. Until then, these gravitational beasts were considered nothing more than mathematical oddities. Finally, in the mid-20th century, theoretical physicists were able to prove that these strange children of Mother Nature were a general prediction General relativity.

Maternal black hole with a Midas touch

The feeder supermassive black hole is located at the center of a galaxy about 9.9 billion light-years from Earth. The galaxy is in the company of at least seven neighboring galaxies, according to observations made with it European Southern Observatory’s Very Large Telescope (VLT) and the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT).

Use the The National Science Foundation (NSA) Jansky Very Large Array, astronomers previously discovered radio emission from a jet of high-energy particles about a million light-years long. The jet can be traced back to the feeding supermassive black hole, which Chandra detected as a strong source of X-rays. The X-rays are created by hot gas swirling around the supermassive black hole. Dr. Gilli and his colleagues also observed a diffuse cloud of X-rays surrounding one end of the radio beam. This X-ray emission probably originates from a huge bubble of gas heated by the dance of energetic particles in the radio beam with the surrounding matter.

As the scorching-hot bubble expanded and penetrated neighboring galaxies, it could compress the cold gas in those galactic neighbors. This would have made fiery baby stars. All the affected galaxies are located at about the same distance – about 400,000 light-years – from the center of the expanding bubble. According to scientists’ calculations, the birth rate of stars is two to five times higher than that of typical galaxies of similar mass and distance from our planet.

“The story of King Midas speaks of his magical touch, which can turn metal into gold. Here is the case of a black hole that helped turn it from gas to stars, and its scope is intergalactic,” explained study co-author Dr. Marco Mignoli. on November 26, 2019 Chandra press release. Dr. Mignoli is also a INAF.

Astronomers have observed many cases where a black hole affects its surroundings through “negative feedback”. This means that an ominous black hole has often been detected, preventing the formation of new stars. This can happen when rays emitted by a black hole send so much energy into the blazingly hot gas of a galaxy – or cluster of galaxies – that the gas cannot cool enough to form large numbers of baby stars. Although it may seem like it defies common sense, things need to cool down before a hot baby star can be born.

“Black holes have a well-deserved reputation for being powerful and deadly, but not always. This is a prime example of how sometimes they defy that stereotype and can actually feed us,” explained co-author Alessandro Peca. Chandra press release. Peca, formerly a INAFcurrently a PhD student at the University of Miami.

Astronomers used a total of six days Chandra the observation time is spread over five months.

“It is only with this very deep observation that we have seen the hot bubble of gas produced by the black hole. By targeting objects like this, we may discover that positive feedback is very common in the formation of galaxy groups and clusters,” commented co-author Dr. Colin Norman in the Chandra press release. Dr. Norman is from Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

An article describing these results was published in the journal Astronomy and astrophysics.

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