How Often Should I Breastfeed My 1 Month Old Baby The Victorian Era and the British Empire

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The Victorian Era and the British Empire

What happened in the Victorian era?

The Victorian Era was the reign of Queen Victoria from June 20, 1837 until her death on January 22, 1901.

The era followed the Georgian period (1714–1837, named after the Hanoverian kings George I, George II, George III, and George IV) and was characterized by a class-based society that included the upper, middle, and lower classes .

It was a period of old-fashioned ideas, famous for its corsets, bonnets, top hats, bustles and petticoats, and the entrepreneurial spirit of the self-made man.

Charles Dickens became famous as the greatest novelist of the Victorian era and Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), a British nurse known as the “Lady of the Lamp”, whose experiences during the Crimean War laid the foundation for modern nursing.

Coronation of Queen Victoria

Queen Victoria’s father died when she was only 8 months old, and her three uncles also died, so she became heir to the throne at the age of 18.

His coronation took place on Thursday 28 June 1838, just over a year after he ascended the throne with Lord Melbourne, his first Prime Minister, who taught him the art of politics.

Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha’s first cousin became Queen Victoria’s consort from their marriage on February 10, 1840 until his death in 1861.

Their children married into royal and noble families, giving them the nickname Victoria, “Grandmother of Europe”, and hemophilia spread throughout European royalty.

Prince Albert died of typhus on 14 December 1861 at Windsor Castle with Queen Victoria and her five children at his bedside.

The Belle Époque (1871-1914)

The Belle Époque (La Belle Époque, “The Beautiful Era”), between the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871 and the outbreak of World War I in 1914, saw the flourishing of French art, a variety of literature, music, theater and the visual arts flourished.

In Britain and the rest of Europe, it was characterized by optimism, regional peace, economic prosperity, colonial expansion, technological, scientific and cultural innovations.

Industrial revolution

The dramatic changes unleashed by the Industrial Revolution made the British Empire the first global industrial power, producing most of the world’s coal, iron, steel and textiles during the Victorian era.

The First Industrial Revolution (1760-1840) saw the destruction of rural life in Britain as cities expanded rapidly and the factory system emerged, centered on textile production.

The three most influential inventions of this period were the coke oven, the steam engine, and the rotary jenny, which increased production capacity.

The Second Industrial Revolution (1850-1914) focused on cost-effective steel production, railroad expansion, advances in electricity, better communications, petroleum, and automobiles.

Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922), a Scottish-born inventor, scientist and engineer, invented and patented the telephone in 1876, while Samuel Finley Breese Morse (27 April 1791 – 2 April 1872) ) American. inventor and painter, invented the electric telegraph (1832-35) and coded Morse code (1838).

Child Labor in the Victorian Era.

Child labor became notorious during the Industrial Revolution for the employment conditions of children, depriving them of their childhood, schooling, and being mentally, physically, socially, and morally harmful.

Children made up more than 25 percent of the British workforce in mines, factories and workshops.

Many of them started working at the age of four or five, working long hours in dangerous working conditions.

In coal mines, children climbed through tunnels too narrow and low for adults, and young boys worked as chimney sweeps in rich houses to remove soot.

The famous author Charles Dickens worked in a blackening factory at the age of 12, with his family in debtor’s prison.

Lord Shaftesbury

Anthony Ashley Cooper, 7th Earl of Shaftesbury (28 April 1801 – 1 October 1885) was a British politician, philanthropist and social reformer who became known as the “Poor Man’s Earl” for his advocacy of better treatment for the working classes.

He was also the president of the Ragged School Union, which supported the education of the most needy children in society.

Lord Shaftesbury believed that education was a way to lift children out of poverty.

The factory laws he supported provided better conditions for children and women, including:

*the maximum length of the working day is 12 hours.

*Children under the age of 9 are prohibited from working.

*children between the ages of 9 and 13 work 48 hours a week, with part-time school attendance.

British Empire

At just 4 feet 11 inches tall, Victoria was a prominent symbol of the British Empire.

His reign paved the way for modern and prosperous Britain.

From the mid-18th century, the Royal Navy was the most powerful navy in the world and played a key role in the creation of the British Empire.

Victories over Napoleonic France increased Britain’s influence abroad, with Lord Nelson’s fleet defeating the French and Spanish at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, and the Duke of Wellington defeating Napoleon Bonaparte at Waterloo in Belgium in 1815.

On the advice of Queen Victoria’s seventh Prime Minister, Benjamin Disraeli, she became Empress of India.

He endorsed his imperialist policies, which led to a scramble for Africa with the other European powers in the 1880s and 1890s.

Great Britain has become the most powerful nation in the world, a quarter of the world’s population is thanks to the Queen.

William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain for 12 years, spanning four terms from 1868 to 1894.

Known as Gladstone liberalism, his political doctrine was to reduce privilege and open established institutions such as universities and the army to all.

Political Parties in the Victorian Era

The two main political parties of the Victorian era were the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives.

The Whigs were a major British political group from the late 17th century to the early 19th century that wanted limited royal power and increased parliamentary power.

The Labor Party was founded in 1900, grew out of the 19th century trade union movement and socialist parties that preceded the Liberal Party, and became the main opposition to the Conservative Party in the early 1920s.

Prominent statesmen of the Victorian era included Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Benjamin Disraeli, William Gladstone and Lord Salisbury.

Lord Melbourne (a Whig), who was British Prime Minister from 16 July 1834 to 14 November 1835 and 18 April 1835 to 30 August 1841, was a close friend and chief political adviser to Queen Victoria in the early years of her reign ( from June 20, 1837).

Crimean War

The Crimean War (1853–1856) was a major European military conflict of the 19th century, during which the Ottoman Empire, France, Great Britain and Sardinia formed an alliance with Tsarist Russia.

The immediate cause was the disputes about the Orthodox holy places in Jerusalem and the rights of the Orthodox Christian minorities in the Holy Land occupied by the Ottoman Empire.

III. French Emperor Napoleon (Catholic) refused.

After receiving pledges of support from France and Great Britain, the Turkish Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia in October 1853.

Charge of the Light Brigade

The charge of the light brigade was carried out during the Battle of Balaklava, Crimean War, on 25 October 1854, by British light cavalry with fast horses and soldiers armed with lances and sabres.

The Light Brigade, consisting of 670 horsemen, lost its head through misinterpreted orders and began to charge against the heavily defended Russian troops.

The legend was made famous by Alfred, Lord Tennyson in his 1855 poem to honor their bravery and sacrifice: “Honor the charge! Honor the Light Brigade, noble six hundred!”

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) was a British nurse and the founder of modern nursing.

She became famous for her nursing work during the Crimean War (1854-56) and became an icon of the Victorian era as “The Lady with the Lantern” who visited wounded and dying soldiers at night.

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